Galatians 4:2

But is under tutors and governors until the time appointed of the father.

But is under tutors and governors,.... The word rendered "tutors", is adopted by the Jewish Targumists and Rabbins into their language; and by the former is used {x} for any ruler and governor, civil or domestic; and by the latter, for such as are guardians of infants, fatherless children, and such as are under age, as it is here used; and who were either appointed by the will of the deceased, or by the sanhedrim, of whom they say {y}, Nnymqwm al ynnqydl apwrjwpa, "we do not appoint a tutor or guardian for a bearded person"; that is, an adult person, one that is grown up to man's estate; but

aqwnyl apwrjwpa hyl Nnymqwm, "we appoint a guardian for an infant"; and they had not used to appoint women or servants, or such as were minors themselves, or any of the common people; but men of substance, integrity, and wisdom {z}; a fatherless child had two tutors {a}; the power that guardians so appointed had, is at large described by Maimonides {b}. Governors were such as acted under the tutors or guardians, and were employed by them for the improvement of their estates and minds, as stewards, schoolmasters, &c. until the time appointed of the father; by his last will and testament, which might be sooner or later, as he pleased; but if he died intestate, the time of minority, and so the duration of tutors and guardians, were according to the laws of the nation; which with the Romans was until a man was twenty five years of age; and with the Jews, for a male, was until he was thirteen years of age and one day; and for a female, until she was twelve years of age and one day, if the signs of ripeness of age appeared; but if they did not, the time was protracted until they were twenty, and even sometimes till they were thirty five years of age, before the matter was determined {c}.

{x} Targum Jon. ben Uzziel in Gen. xxxix. 4. & xli 34, 35. & xliii 15. Targum in Esther i. 8. & 2. 3.
{y} T. Bab. Bava Metzia, fol. 39. 1, 2.
{z} Maimon. Hilch. Necabot, c. 10. sect. 6.
{a} Bartenora in Misn. Pesachim, c. 8. sect. 1.
{b} Hilch. Nechalot, c. 11.
{c} Ib. Hilch. Ishot, c. 2. sect. 1, 2.