Matthew 13:55

Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? and his brethren, James, and Joses, and Simon, and Judas?

Is not this the carpenter's son?.... Meaning Joseph, who was by trade a carpenter, and whose son Jesus was supposed to be; and who very probably was now dead, which may be the reason he is not mentioned by name. The Greek word here used, signifies any mechanic, or artificer. The Syriac expresses it by a word, which signifies both a carpenter and a blacksmith; and Munster's Hebrew Gospel renders it, axpn Nb, "the blacksmith's son". But the generally received notion of the ancient Christians is, that he was a carpenter, and that Jesus was brought up to the same business, which lay in making ploughs and yokes {q}. This also appears, from the answer the Christian schoolmaster at Antioch gave to Libanius the sophister; who being big with expectation of Julian the apostate's getting the victory, asked the schoolmaster, what he thought the carpenter's son was doing? To which, after a short pause, he replied; O sophister! the Creator of all things, whom thou callest the carpenter's son, is making a coffin for Julian; who accordingly died in a few days after {r}. The Jews make mention of one Abba Joseph, yanbh, "the builder", or carpenter {s}; but whether the same, is not certain. What they here say, was no doubt by way of derision and contempt; and yet the same phrase is used by them of a person of great note and fame, for his wisdom and knowledge: thus speaking of a difficult point, they {t} say,

"rgn rb alw rgn tyl, "no carpenter", or smith, or a carpenter's son, can solve this: says R. Shesheth, I am neither a carpenter, nor a carpenter's son, and I can solve it.''

The gloss upon it is,

"a wise man, the son of a wise man.''

is not his mother called Mary? Plain Mary, without any other title, or civil respect; a poor spinstress, that got her bread by her hand labour: the Jews say {u}, she was a plaiter of women's hair, and treat her with the utmost scorn.

and his brethren; not strictly so, but either the sons of Joseph by a former wife; or Mary's, or Joseph's brothers or sisters sons, and so cousins to Christ; it being usual with the Jews to call such, and even more distant relations, brethren:

James; the son of Alphaeus, or Cleophas, one of Christ's disciples,

Matthew 10:3 called the Lord's brother, Gal 1:19 and the same that wrote the epistle that bears his name:

and Joses; or Joseph, as the Vulgate Latin, and Munster's Hebrew Gospel read; and which two names are one and the same: hence, in Talmudic writings, we often read of R. Jose, who is the same with R. Joseph {w}: this Joses is, by Dr. Lightfoot, conjectured to be the same with Joseph, called Barsabas, who was put in nomination for apostleship, after the death of Judas, Acts 1:23

And Simon; or Symeon, the son of Cleophas, who is said {x} to succeed James, as bishop of Jerusalem, and to be Christ's cousin, being son of Cleophas, the brother of Joseph, the supposed father of Christ:

and Judas; the same that is called Lebbaeus, and Thaddaeus,

Matthew 10:3 and the brother of James, Luke 6:16 and the same that wrote the epistle that goes by his name. The Jews ought not to have made these remarks, since many of their great doctors were of mean parentage; as R. Zachariah was a butcher's son {y}, and R. Jochanan a blacksmith's son {z}; hence that advice of R. Juda ben Bethira {a},

"take heed that ye do not reproach the sons of the common people, for from them comes forth the law.''

{q} Justin Martyr. Dialog. cum Tryph. p. 316.
{r} Tripartit. Hist. 1. 6. c. 44.
{s} Shemoth Rabba, sect. 13. fol. 99. 2.
{t} T. Bab. Avoda Zara, fol. 50. 2.
{u} T. Bab. Sabbat. fol. 104. 2. Chagiga, fol. 4. 2. Sanhedrim, fol. 67. 1.
{w} Vid. Juchasin, fol. 61. & 62.
{x} Euseb. Eccl. Hist. 1. 3. c. 11.
{y} Misn. Sota, c. 5. sect. 1.
{z} T. Bab. Sanhedrim, fol. 96. 1.
{a} Ib.