Ezra 7:12

Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.

Artaxerxes, king of kings,.... Having many kings and kingdoms subject and tributary to him; for this was not merely a proud haughty title which the eastern kings {p} assumed, particularly the Persians; for after Cyrus they were so in fact, who took this title also, and had it put on his sepulchral monument,

"Here I lie, Cyrus, king of kings {q};''

this title was given to Grecian kings, particularly Agamemnon is called king of kings {r}, he being general at the siege of Troy, under whom the rest of the kings fought; if this was Darius Hystaspis, of him Cyrus dreamed that he had wings on his shoulders, with one he covered Asia, and with the other Europe {s}:

unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven; of which titles see Ezra 7:11:

perfect peace, and at such a time; the word "perfect" belongs to Ezra's title as a scribe, signifying that he was a most learned and complete scribe or teacher of the law of God; "peace" is not in the text, and the phrase "at such a time" respects the date of the letter, though not expressed, or is only an "et cetera", See Gill on "Ezra 4:10".

{p} See the Universal History, vol. 5. p. 16, 137. & vol. 11. p. 7, 8. margin, & p. 66.
{q} Strabo, Geograph. l. 15. p. 502.
{r} Vell. Patercul. Hist. Roman. l. 1. in initio.
{s} Herodot. Clio, sive, l. 1. c. 209.