Genesis 10:3

And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah.

And the sons of Gomer,.... Who was the first of the sons of Japheth, three of whose sons are mentioned, and they are as follow:

Ashkenaz, and Riphath, and Togarmah; the first of these seated himself in the lesser Asia, in Pontus and Bithynia, where were some traces of his name in the river Ascanius, and in the Ascanian lake or bay; and also in the lesser Phrygia or Troas, where was a city called Ascania, and where were the Ascanian isles {x}, and the Euxine Pontus, or Axeine {y}, as it was first called, which is the sea that separates Asia and Europe, and is no other than a corruption of the sea of Ashkenaz. It seems to have been near Armenia, by its being mentioned along with Minni or Armenia, in Jeremiah 51:27. Germany is by the Jews commonly called Ashkenaz; perhaps some of the posterity of Ashkenaz in Asia might pass into Europe, and Germany might be a colony of them; so Mr. Broughton {z} observes of the sons of Gomer, that they first took their seat in Asia, and then came north and west into Muscovy and Germany. The next son of Gomer was Riphath. Josephus {a} says, that the Riphathaeans which came from him are the Paphlagonians, a people of Asia Minor, near Pontus, so that he settled near his brother Ashkenaz; perhaps his posterity are the Arimphaei of Pliny {b}, and the Riphaeans of Mela {c}, who inhabited near the Riphaean mountains, which might have their name from this son of Gomer, who in 1 Chronicles 1:6 is called Diphath, the letters r and d being very similar. His third son is called Togarmah, who had his seat in the north of Judea, see

Ezekiel 38:6 his posterity are the Phrygians, according to Josephus {d}; but some place them in Galatia and Cappadocia; and Strabo {e} makes mention of a people called Trocmi, on the borders of Pontus and Cappadocia; and Cicero {f} of the Trogmi or Trogini, who may have their name from hence; for the Greek interpreters always call him Torgama or Thorgana. The Jews make the Turks to be the posterity of Togarmah. Elias Levita says {g}, there are some that say that Togarmah is the land of Turkey; and Benjamin of Tudela {h} calls a Turkish sultan king of the Togarmans, that is, the Turks; and among the ten families of Togarmah, which Josephus ben Gorion {i} speaks of, the Turks are one; and perhaps this notion may not be amiss, since the company of Togarmah is mentioned with Gog, or the Turk, See Gill on "Ezekiel 38:6". The Armenians pretend to be the descendants of Togarmah, who, with them, is the son of Tiras, the son of Gomer, by his son Haik, from whom they and their country, from all antiquity, have bore the name of Haik {k}.

{x} Strabo Geograph. l. 12. p. 387, 388. & l. 14. p. 468. Plin. Nat. Hist. l. 4. 12. & 5. 30, 31, 32.
{y} Vid. Orphei Argonautic, ver. 84.
{z} See his Works, p. 2, 58.
{a} Ut supra. (Antiqu. l. 1. c. 6. sect. 1.)
{b} Nat. Hist. l. 6. c. 2.
{c} De Situ Orbis, l. 1. c. 2.
{d} Ut supra. (Antiqu. l. 1. c. 6. sect. 1.)
{e} Geograph. l. 4. p. 130. & l. 12. p. 390.
{f} De Divinatione, l. 2.
{g} In Tishbi, p. 259.
{h} ltinerarium, p. 27, 54.
{i} Hist. Heb. l. 1. c. 1. p. 3.
{k} See the Universal History, vol. 1. p. 377.