Introduction to Psalm 54
To the chief Musician on Neginoth, Maschil, [A Psalm] of David, when the Ziphims came and said to Saul, Doth not David hide himself with us? Of the word "neginoth", See Gill on "Psalms 4:1", title; and of "maschil", See Gill on "Psalms 32:1", title. The occasion of writing this psalm were the discoveries the Ziphims or Ziphites made to Saul of David being in their neighbourhood; which they did twice, as appears from
1 Samuel 23:14. Which of these gave occasion to the psalm is not certain; it is very likely that it was composed after both had been made. These Ziphims were the inhabitants of a city called Ziph, which was in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 15:55, near to which was a wilderness, which had its name from the city in which David was when they came to Saul with this news of him.