Ezekiel 17:18

Seeing he despised the oath by breaking the covenant, when, lo, he had given his hand, and hath done all these things, he shall not escape.

Seeing he despised the oath, by breaking the covenant,.... This is repeated again, to show the heinousness of the sin Zedekiah had been guilty of, and what was the cause of his ruin:

when, lo, he had given his hand; to the king of Babylon, to testify his hearty agreement with him, and that he might depend upon the oath and covenant being sacredly observed by him. This was a rite for custom frequently and early used in different nations, when covenants and agreements were entered into; we find it used in the times of Homer {z}; and among the Romans. When Antoninus, Lepidus, and Octavius made peace, the historian says {a}, they joined their hands together. Virgil {b} speaks of the same ceremony used by Anchises to Achaemenides, for confirmation of friendship. Though some understand this of his giving the hand to Pharaoh king of Egypt, and entering into an alliance with him, and broke the covenant and oath made to the king of Babylon; and so the Targum,

"and, lo, he stretched out his hand to Pharaoh:''

and hath done all these things; been guilty of such and so many crimes, as ingratitude, perjury, covenant breaking, and vain confidence:

he shall not escape; divine vengeance, just and proper punishment for his sins.

{z} ceirav t' allhlwn labethn kai pistwsate, Iliad. 6.
{a} Florus, Hist. Rom. Gest. l. 4. c. 5.
{b} "Ipse pater dextram Anchises, haud malta moratur, Dat juveni atque animum praesenti pignore firmat". Aeneid. l. 3. prope finem.